Increased expression of histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) and matrix metalloprotease 12 (MMP12) in carotid artery wall has been linked to the development of atherosclerosis and adverse clinical outcome of its treatment. Here, we utilized genome-wide expression analysis to study the association of MMP12 and HDAC9 expression in atherosclerotic plaques with plaque stability and with macrophage and smooth muscle cell markers. We found an association of HDAC9 and MMP12 expression in carotid artery plaques and identified M4 macrophages as a possible source of the increased MMP12 and HDAC9 expression in these plaques. Immunohistochemistry of tissue sections from artery plaques and healthy arteries confirmed colocalization of HDAC9 and MMP12 signals with each other and with the macrophage markers. These results suggest that M4 macrophages may play an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerotic plaques in arteries.
Oksala et al.
Synergistic Expression of Histone Deacetylase 9 and Matrix Metalloproteinase 12 in M4 Macrophages in Advanced Carotid Plaques.
Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2017, 53(5), 632-640